1600: Important events
Sick of the stench from the canals.
In the 17th century, when the Republic of the Netherlands experienced an enormous spurt of economic and cultural growth, many well-to-do inhabitants of Amsterdam fled the city. The main reason for this was that the canals were virtually sewers, and the stench was almost unbearable, particularly in the summer. Those who could afford to do so retired to a summer residence outside the city. The summer residences mostly had a number of fixed features, namely the country house with a decorative garden and/or kitchen garden, an orchard, a coach house and stables, sheds, an orangery and a nearby farm. There are many such mansions along the Vecht and Amstel rivers, as well as in the nearby hillier landscapes of the Gooi or Kennemerland regions. The area around Haarlem, Velsen, Zandvoort and Santpoort was particularly popular among affluent residents of Amsterdam, and Duin & Berg estate and the adjoining Kruidberg estate were also sought-after.